Melpitz

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Regional background site (EMEP code DE0044R)

Since 1992, Melpitz has been an atmospheric research station operated by the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS). The station is located in Eastern Germany near the city of Torgau. The site is surrounded by flat and semi-natural grasslands without any obstacles in all directions. The site is part of the EMEP and ACTRIS networks, and also a regional station of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). Measurements at Melpitz can be taken as representative for the Central European background atmosphere (Asmi et al., 2011). The site has also proved to be useful to detect cross-boundary transport of pollution from easterly directions. Chemical and physical characterisation experiments have been conducted here since 1992, many of which continuously. An account on the basic aerosol characteristics can be found in Spindler et al. (2004, 2010, 2012), Hermann et al. (2006), and Engler et al. (2007). Melpitz hosts many of the specialised campaign measurements within GUAN.

Continuous aerosol measurements

Parameter Instrument Particle size range Measured since Comment
Particle number size distribution TDMPS 3-800 nm 03/1996-08/1997 and since 07/2003
Non-volatile particle number size distribution TDMPS-Thermodenuder 3-800 nm 07/2003 T=300°C
Particle number size distribution APS 0.8-10 µm 2008
Aerosol absorption coefficient MAAP PM10 2008
Aerosol scattering coefficient Nephelometer PM10 2008
Optical particle spectrometer EDM180, Grimm GmbH PM10, PM2.5, PM1 2005 two inlets at ambient temperature and 50°C
Particle mass concentration TEOM-FDMS PM10 2005
Particle mass concentration Digitel High Volume Sampler PM10, PM2.5, PM1 1993 (PM10), 2003 (PM2.5 and PM1)

Non-continuous aerosol measurements

Parameter Instrument Particle size range Measured Comment
Chemical particle composition Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer PM1 2008-2010 in cooperation with EMEP and EUCAARI
Hygroscopicity H-TDMA 30-265 nm 2008-2009 in cooperation with EUCAARI
Chemical particle composition 5-stage Berner impactor 0.12-10 µm 2008-2010 total of 42 daily samples in GUAN
Ultrafine particle size distributions NAIS 2-42 nm 2008-2011 in cooperation with EUCAARI

Other measurements at Melpitz

Gas phase:

  • Reactive trace gases measured since 1993: Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen Oxides (NO, NO2)
  • Reactive trace gases measured since 2010: Amonia (NH3)

Precipitation:

  • Amount of precipitation (mm), pH value, conductivity
  • inorganic ions: SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, K+, Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+

Meteorology:

  • Weather station: air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, relative humidity, air pressure and global radiation

Links

Melpitz on the TROPOS main page.

Access Melpitz data through this wiki space. Public access to Melpitz data on NILU's EBAS web site.

Publications using Melpitz data

  • Sun, J., Birmili, W., Hermann, M, Tuch, T., Weinhold, K., Spindler, G.,Schladitz, A., Bastian, S., Löschau, G., Cyrys, J., Gu, J., Flentje, H., Briel, B., Asbach, C., Kaminski, H.,Ries, L., Sohmer, R., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ma, N., Wiedensohler,A.: Variability of Black Carbon mass concentrations, sub-micrometer particle number concentrations and size distributions: Results of the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network ranging from city street to high Alpine locations, Atmos. Environ., 202, 256-268, 2019. Open Access Download

2018

  • Größ, J., Hamed, A., Sonntag, A., Spindler, G., Manninen, H. E., Nieminen, T., Kulmala, M., Hõrrak, U., Plass-Dülmer, C., Wiedensohler, A., and Birmili, W.: Atmospheric new particle formation at the research station Melpitz, Germany: connection with gaseous precursors and meteorological parameters, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1835-1861, 2018. Download from ACP
  • Heintzenberg, J., Senf, F., Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A.: Aerosol connections between three distant continental stations, Atmos. Environ., 190, 349-358, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.07.047, 2018.

2017

  • Löschau, G., Hausmann, A., Wolf, U., Sommer, W., Wiedensohler, A., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Birmili, W., Hermann, H., Anhalt, M., Böhme, U., Dietz, V., Kath, H.-G., Kühne, H.: Umweltzone Leipzig – Abschlussbericht. Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, 75 S., 2017. Download PDF version at LfULG
  • Schmale, J., Henning, S., Henzing, B., Keskinen, H., Sellegri, K. et al.: Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition, Scientific Data, 4, 170003, doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.3, 2017.
  • Teich, M., van Pinxteren, D., Wang, M., Kecorius, S., Wang, Z., Müller, T., Močnik, G., and Herrmann, H.: Contributions of nitrated aromatic compounds to the light absorption of water-soluble and particulate brown carbon in different atmospheric environments in Germany and China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1653-1672, 2017. Download from ACP
  • Wang, Z., Birmili, W., Hamed, A., Wehner, B., Spindler, G., Pei, X., Wu, Z., Cheng, Y., Su, H., and Wiedensohler, A.: Contributions of volatile and nonvolatile compounds (at 300°C) to condensational growth of atmospheric nanoparticles: An assessment based on 8.5 years of observations at the Central Europe background site Melpitz, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 485–497, doi:10.1002/2016JD025581, 2017.

2016

  • Birmili, W., Weinhold, K., Rasch, F., Sonntag, A., Sun, J., Merkel, M., Wiedensohler, A., Bastian, S., Schladitz, A., Löschau, G., Cyrys, J., Pitz, M., Gu, J., Kusch, T., Flentje, H., Quass, U., Kaminski, H., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ries, L., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., and Fiebig, M.: Long-term observations of tropospheric particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 355-382, doi:10.5194/essd-8-355-2016, 2016. Download at ESSD
  • Chen, Y., Cheng, Y.-F., Nordmann, S., Birmili, W., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Ma, N., Wolke, R., Wehner, B., Sun, J., Spindler, G., Mu, Q., Pöschl, U., Su, H., and Wiedensohler, A.: Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823-1835, doi:10.5194/acp-16-1823-2016, 2016. Download from ACP
  • Chen, Y., Cheng, Y., Ma, N., Wolke, R., Nordmann, S., Schüttauf, S., Ran, L., Wehner, B., Birmili, W., van der Gon, H. A. C. D., Mu, Q., Barthel, S., Spindler, G., Stieger, B., Müller, K., Zheng, G.-J., Pöschl, U., Su, H., and Wiedensohler, A.: Sea salt emission, transport and influence on size-segregated nitrate simulation: a case study in northwestern Europe by WRF-Chem, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081-12097, doi:10.5194/acp-16-12081-2016, 2016. Download from ACP
  • Hande, L. B., Engler, C., Hoose, C., and Tegen, I.: Parameterizing cloud condensation nuclei concentrations during HOPE, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12059-12079. Download from ACP
  • Löschau, G., Wolf, U., Hausmann, A., Kath, H.-G., Wiedensohler, A., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Bimili, W., Herrmann, H., Anhalt, M., Dietz, V., Böhme, U.: Umweltzone Leipzig – Teil 5: Immissionssituation 2010–2015. Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, 71 S., 2016. Download PDF version at LfULG
  • Platis, A., Altstädter, B., Wehner, B. et al.: An Observational Case Study on the Influence of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Dynamics on New Particle Formation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 158:67, doi:10.1007/s10546-015-0084-y, 2016.

2015

  • Birmili, W., Sun, J., Weinhold, K., Merkel, M., Rasch, F., Wiedensohler, A., Bastian, S., Löschau, G., Schladitz, A., Quass, U., Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., Kaminski, H., Cyrys, J., Pitz, M., Gu, J., Kusch, T., Flentje, H., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ries, L., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., Weber, S.: Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) - Part III: Black Carbon mass and particle number concentrations 2009-2014, Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 75(11/12), 479-488, 2015. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2015
  • Löschau, G., Wiedensohler, A., Birmili, W., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Wolf, U., Hausmann, A., Böttger, M., Bastian, S., Anhalt, M., Dietz, V., Herrmann, H., Böhme, U.: Umweltzone Leipzig – Teil 4: Immissionssituation 2010–2014. Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, 75 S., 2015. Download PDF version at LfULG
  • Ma, N. and Birmili, W.: Estimating the contribution of photochemical particle formation to ultrafine particle number averages in an urban atmosphere, Sci. Tot. Environ., 512–513, 154-166, 2015. Open Access from STOTEN
  • von Bismarck-Osten, C., Birmili, W., Ketzel, M., and Weber, S.: Statistical modelling of aerosol particle number size distributions in urban and rural environments – A multi-site study, Urban Climate, 11, 51-66, 2015.
  • Wu, Z. J., Poulain, L., Birmili, W., Größ, J., Niedermeier, N., Wang, Z. B., Herrmann, H., and Wiedensohler, A.: Some insights into the condensing vapors driving new particle growth to CCN sizes on the basis of hygroscopicity measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13071-13083, 2015. Download from ACP

2014

  • Löschau, G., Wiedensohler, A., Birmili, W., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Wolf, U., Hausmann, A., Böttger, M., Anhalt, M., Dietz, V., Herrmann, H., Böhme, U.: Umweltzone Leipzig, Teil 3: Immissionssituation 2010-2013. Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, 73 S., 31.12.2014. Download PDF at LfULG.
  • Poulain, L., Birmili, W., Canonaco, F., Crippa, M., Wu, Z. J., Nordmann, S., Spindler, G., Prévôt, A. S. H., Wiedensohler, A., and Herrmann, H.: Chemical mass balance of 300 °C non-volatile particles at the tropospheric research site Melpitz, Germany, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10145-10162, 2014. Download from ACP
  • Ma, N., Birmili, W., Müller, T., Tuch, T., Cheng, Y. F., Xu, W. Y., Zhao, C. S., and Wiedensohler, A.: Tropospheric aerosol scattering and absorption over central Europe: a closure study for the dry particle state, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6241-6259, 2014. Download from ACP
  • Scheinhardt, S. van Pinxteren, D., Müller, K., Spindler, G., Herrmann, H.: Hydroxymethanesulfonic acid in size-segregated aerosol particles at nine sites in Germany. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4531-4538, 2014. Download form ACP
  • von Bismarck-Osten, C. and Weber, S.: A uniform classification of aerosol signature size distributions based on regression-guided and observational cluster analysis, Atmos. Environ., 89, 346-357, 2014.
  • Zieger, P., R. Fierz-Schmidhauser, L. Poulain, T. Müller, W. Birmili, G. Spindler, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner: Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol. Tellus B, 66, 22716, 2014. Download from Tellus B.

2013

  • Asmi, A., Collaud Coen, M., Ogren, J. A., Andrews, E., Sheridan, P., Jefferson, A. et al.: Aerosol decadal trends – Part 2: In-situ aerosol particle number concentrations at GAW and ACTRIS stations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895-916, 2013. Download form ACP
  • Birmili, W., Tomsche, L., Sonntag, A., Opelt, C., Weinhold, K., Nordmann, S., Schmidt, W.: Variability of aerosol particles in the urban atmosphere of Dresden (Germany): Effects of spatial scale and particle size, Meteorolog. Z., 22(2), 195–211, 2013. Download from MetZ
  • Genberg, J., Denier van der Gon, H.A.C., Simpson, D., Swietlicki, E., Areskoug, H., Beddows, D., Ceburnis, D., Fiebig, M., Hansson, H.C., Harrison, R.M., Jennings, S.G., Saarikoski, S., Spindler, G., Visschedijk, A.J.H., Wiedensohler, A., Yttri, K.E., Bergström, R.: Light-absorbing carbon in Europe – measurement and modelling, with a focus on residential wood combustion emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8719-8738, 2013. Download form ACP
  • Löschau, G., Wiedensohler, A., Birmili, W., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Wolf, U., Hausmann, A., Böttger, M., Anhalt, M., Herrmann, H.: Umweltzone Leipzig, Teil 2: Immissionssituation 2011. Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, 89 S., 02.05.2013. Download PDF version at LfULG
  • Nordmann, S., W. Birmili, K. Weinhold, K. Müller, G. Spindler, and A. Wiedensohler:, Measurements of the mass absorption cross section of atmospheric soot particles using Raman spectroscopy. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 12075–12085, doi:10.1002/2013JD020021, 2013.
  • Paasonen, P., Asmi, A., Petäjä, T., Kajos, M.K. Aijala, M., Junninen, H., Holst, T., Abbatt, J.P.D., Arneth, A., Birmili, W. van der Gon, H.G. Hamed, A. Hoffer, A., Laakso, L., Laaksonen, A., Leaitch, W.R., Plass-Dülmer, C., Pryor, S.C., Raisanen, P., Swietlicki, E., Wiedensohler, A., Worsnop, D. R., Kerminen, V.-M., Kulmala, M.: Warming-induced increase in aerosol number concentration likely to moderate climate change. Nature Geosci., 6, 438-442, 2013.
  • Rasch, F., Birmili, W., Weinhold, K., Nordmann, S., Sonntag, A., Spindler, G., Herrmann, H., Wiedensohler, A., Löschau, G.: Signifikante Minderung von Ruß und Anzahl ultrafeiner Partikel in Außenluft als Folge der Umweltzone in Leipzig (Significant reduction of ambient black carbon and particle number in Leipzig as a result of the low emission zone). Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 73(11/12): 483-489, 2013. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2013
  • Scheinhardt, S., Müller, K., Spindler, G., Harrmann, H.: Compexation of trace metals in size-segregated aerosol particles at nine sites in Germany. Atmos. Environ. 74, 102-109, 2013.
  • Spindler, G., Grüner, A., Müller, K., Schlimper, S., Herrmann, H.: Long-term size-segregated particle (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) characterization study at Melpitz – influence of air mass inflow, weather conditions and season. J. Atmos. Chem., 70, 165-195, 2013.
  • von Bismarck-Osten, C., Birmili, W., Ketzel, M., Massling, A., Petäjä, T., Weber, S.: Characterization of parameters influencing the spatio-temporal variability of urban particle number size distributions in four European cities. Atmos. Environ., 77, 415-429, 2013.

2012

  • Asmi, A.: Weakness of the weekend effect in aerosol number concentrations, Atmos. Environ., 51, 100-107, 2012.
  • Engler, C., Birmili, W., Spindler, G., and Wiedensohler, A.: Analysis of exceedances in the daily PM10 mass concentration (50 μg m−3) at a roadside station in Leipzig, Germany, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10107-10123, 2012. Download form ACP
  • Gnauk, T., K. Müller, E. Brüggemann, W. Birmili, K. Weinhold, D. Pinxteren, G. Löschau, G. Spindler, H., Herrmann: A study to discriminate local, urban and regional source contributions to the particulate matter concentrations in the city of Dresden, Germany. J. Atmos. Chem., 68, 199-231, 2012.
  • Löschau, G., Wiedensohler, A., Birmili, W., Rasch, F., Spindler, G., Müller, K., Wolf, U., Hausmann, A., Herrmann, H.: Umweltzone Leipzig, Teil 1: Ausgangsbeurteilung (The low-emission zone in Leipzig, part 1: initial state), Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology), 83 S., 11.05.2012. Download PDF version at LfULG
  • Pietikäinen, J.-P., O'Donnell, D., Teichmann, C., Karstens, U., Pfeifer, S., Kazil, J., Podzun, R., Fiedler, S., Kokkola, H., Birmili, W., O'Dowd, C., Baltensperger, U., Weingartner, E., Gehrig, R., Spindler, G., Kulmala, M., Feichter, J., Jacob, D., and Laaksonen, A.: The regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1323-1339, 2012. Download form GMD
  • Spindler, G., Gnauk, T., Grüner, A., Iinuma, Y., Müller, K., Scheinhardt, S., Herrmann, H.: Size-segregated characterization of PM10 at the EMEP site Melpitz (Germany) using a five-stage impactor: a six year study. J. Atmos. Chem., 69, 127-157, 2012.
  • Romakkaniemi, S., A. Arola, H. Kokkola, W. Birmili, T. Tuch, V.-M. Kerminen, P. Räisänen, J. N. Smith, H. Korhonen, and A. Laaksonen: Effect of aerosol size distribution changes on AOD, CCN and cloud droplet concentration: Case studies from Erfurt and Melpitz, Germany, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07202, doi:10.1029/2011JD017091, 2012.

2011

  • Asmi, A., Wiedensohler, A., Laj, P. et al.: Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008–2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5505‐5538, 2011. Download form ACP
  • Hamburger, T., McMeeking, G., Minikin, A., Birmili, W., Dall'Osto, M. et al.: Overview of the synoptic and pollution situation over Europe during the EUCAARI‐LONGREX field campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1065‐1082, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Mikkonen, S., Korhonen, H., Romakkaniemi, S., Smith, J. N., Joutsensaari, J. et al.: Meteorological and trace gas factors affecting the number concentration of atmospheric Aitken (Dp = 50 nm) particles in the continental boundary layer: parameterization using a multivariate mixed effects model, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 1-13, 2011. Download from GMD
  • Mikkonen, S., Romakkaniemi, S., Smith, J. N., Korhonen, H., Petäjä, T. et al.: A statistical proxy for sulphuric acid concentration, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11319-11334, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Poulain, L., Spindler, G., Birmili, W., Plass-Dülmer, C., Wiedensohler, A., and Herrmann, H.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of particulate nitrate and organic matter at the IfT research station Melpitz, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12579-12599, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Reddington, C. L., Carslaw, K. S., Spracklen, D. V., Frontoso, M. G., Collins, L. et al.: Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12007-12036, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Tsyro, S., Aas, W., J. Soares, J., Sofiev, M., Berge, H., Spindler, G.: Modelling of sea salt concentrations over Europe: key uncertainties and comparison with observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10367-10388, 2011. Download from ACP

2010

  • Hamed, A., Birmili, W., Joutsensaari, J., Mikkonen, S., Asmi, A. et al.: Changes in the production rate of secondary aerosol particles in Central Europe in view of decreasing SO2 emissions between 1996 and 2006, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1071-1091, 2010. Download from ACP
  • Manninen, H. E., Nieminen, T., Asmi, E., Gagné, S., Häkkinen, S. et al.: EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites – analysis of new particle formation events, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7907-7927, 2010. Download from ACP
  • Spindler G., Brüggemann E., Gnauk T., Grüner A., Müller K., Herrmann H.: A four-year size-segregated characterization study of particles PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 depending on air mass origin at Melpitz, Atmos. Environ., 44: 164-173, 2010
  • Spracklen, D. V., Carslaw, K. S., Merikanto, J., Mann, G. W., Reddington, C. L., Pickering, S. et al.: Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4775‐4793, 2010. Download from ACP

2009

  • Birmili, W., K. Weinhold, S. Nordmann, A. Wiedensohler, G. Spindler, K. Müller, H. Herrmann, T. Gnauk, M. Pitz, J. Cyrys, H. Flentje, C. Nickel, T.A.J. Kuhlbusch, G. Löschau, D. Haase, F. Meinhardt, A. Schwerin, L. Ries, and K. Wirtz. Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN): Part 1 - soot and particle number size distributions. Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 69(4): 137-145, 2009. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2009
  • Costabile, F., Birmili, W., Klose, S., Tuch, T., Wehner, B., Wiedensohler, A., Franck, U., König, K., and Sonntag, A.: Spatio-temporal variability and principal components of the particle number size distribution in an urban atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3163-3195, 2009. Download from ACP
  • Jaatinen, A., Hamed, A., Joutsensaari, J., Mikkonen, S., Birmili, W., Wehner, B., Spindler, G., Wiedensohler, A., Decesari, S., Mircea, M., Facchini, M. C., Junninen, H., Kulmala, M., Lehtinen, K. E. J. & Laaksonen, A. A comparison of new particle formation events in the boundary layer at three different sites in Europe. Boreal Env. Res. 14: 481–498, 2009. Download from BER
  • Nordmann, S., W. Birmili, K. Weinhold, A. Wiedensohler, S. Mertes, K. Müller, T. Gnauk, H. Herrmann, M. Pitz, J. Cyrys, H. Flentje, L. Ries, K. Wirtz: Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) - Part 2: Comparison of measurements techniques for graphitic, light-absorbing, and elemental carbon, and the non-volatile particle volume under field conditions. Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 69(11/12): 469-474, 2009. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG

2008

  • Birmili, W., Schepanski, K., Ansmann, A., Spindler, G., Tegen, I., Wehner, B. et al.: A case of extreme particulate matter concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 997-1016, 2008. Download from ACP

2004-2007

  • Engler, C., Rose, D., Wehner, B., Wiedensohler, A., Brüggemann, E. et al.: Size distributions of non-volatile particle residuals (Dp < 800 nm) at a rural site in Germany and relation to air mass origin. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7: 5785-5802, 2007. Download from ACP
  • Herrmann, H., Brüggemann, E., Frank, U., Gnauk, T., Löschau, G. et al.: A source study of PM in Saxony by size-segregated characterisation. J. Atmos. Chem. 55: 103-130, 2006.
  • Spindler, G., Müller, K., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Herrmann, H.: Long-term size-segregated charakterization of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 at the IfT research station Melpitz downwind of Leipzig (Germany). Atmos. Environ., 38: 5333-5347, 2004.
  • Wehner, B., T. Petäjä, M. Boy, C. Engler, W. Birmili, T. Tuch, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Kulmala: The contribution of sulfuric acid and non-volatile compounds on the growth of freshly formed atmospheric aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17810, 2005.

-2003

  • Birmili, W. and Wiedensohler, A.: New particle formation in the continental boundary layer: Meteo¬rological and gas phase parameter influence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3325–3328, 2000.
  • Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A., Heintzenberg, J., and Lehmann, K.: Atmospheric particle number size distribution in Central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology, J. Geophys. Res., D23, 32005–32018, 2001.
  • Neusüß, C., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T. et al.: Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric particle number, mass, and chemical size distributions in central Europe during LACE 98 and MINT, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8127, 2002.
  • Wiedensohler, A., Wehner, B., and Birmili, W.: Aerosol number concentration and size distributions at mountain-rural, urban-influenced, and urban-background sites in Germany, J. Aerosol Med., 15, 237–243, 2002.

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