Schauinsland

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Regional background site (EMEP code DE0003R)

Schauinsland (1205 m a.s.l.) is one of the manned observatories within the German Federal Environment Agency's observation network. The site is located near the Schauinsland peak in the Black Forest in south-western Germany. The station is well-suited to characterise air masses that approach Central Europe from westerly directions. In winter, the site tends to reside in relatively clean air above the Rhine valley’s inversion layer.

The earliest measurements at Schauinsland started in 1965 as part of several research programmes funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). In 1974, the measurements were immersed into the German Federal Environment Agency's observation network. Work at Schauinsland is focused on the detection of long-term trends. Schauinsland hosts, since 1972, the longest continuous observation of carbon dioxide (CO2) observations in Europe.

Continuous aerosol measurements

Parameter Instrument Particle size range Measured since Comment
Particle number size distribution SMPS 10-800 nm 12/2005
Non-volatile particle number size distribution SMPS-Thermodenuder 10-800 nm 11/2008 T=300°C
Aerosol absorption coefficient (black carbon) MAAP PM1 11/2008
Particle number size distribution APS 0.8-10 µm 01/2012
Particle mass concentration Digitel High Volume Sampler PM10, PM2.5
Particle mass concentration SHARP 5030 PM10, PM2.5
Major ions (SO42-, ∑ NH3+ NH4+, ∑ HNO3+ NO3-) Ion chromatography PM10, PM2.5
Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) PM10

Non-continuous aerosol measurements

Parameter Instrument Particle size range Measured since Comment
Chemical composition 5-stage Berner impactor 2008-2010

Other measurements

Gas phase:

  • Reactive trace gases: Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx, NO, NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN), Ammonia (NH3), Mercury (Hg), carbonyl compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Isotopes: Carbon isotopes (13C, 14C), Oxigen isotope 18O, Radon 222Rn
  • Non-reactive trace gases: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide N2O, Sulfur hexaflouride (SF6), Hydrogen (H2)

Precipitation:

  • Amount of precipitation (mm), pH value, conductivity
  • inorganic ions: SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, K+, Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+
  • Heavy metals: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn
  • persistent organic pollutants

Meteorology:

  • Weather station: air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, relative humidity, air pressure
  • Global radiation
  • Spectrum of UV radiation
  • Ceilometer: Cloud base height

Schauinsland is also a member of...

References

  • Sun, J., Birmili, W., Hermann, M, Tuch, T., Weinhold, K., Spindler, G.,Schladitz, A., Bastian, S., Löschau, G., Cyrys, J., Gu, J., Flentje, H., Briel, B., Asbach, C., Kaminski, H.,Ries, L., Sohmer, R., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ma, N., Wiedensohler,A.: Variability of Black Carbon mass concentrations, sub-micrometer particle number concentrations and size distributions: Results of the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network ranging from city street to high Alpine locations, Atmos. Environ., 202, 256-268, 2019. Open Access Download
  • Birmili, W., Weinhold, K., Rasch, F., Sonntag, A., Sun, J., Merkel, M., Wiedensohler, A., Bastian, S., Schladitz, A., Löschau, G., Cyrys, J., Pitz, M., Gu, J., Kusch, T., Flentje, H., Quass, U., Kaminski, H., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ries, L., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., and Fiebig, M.: Long-term observations of tropospheric particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 355-382, doi:10.5194/essd-8-355-2016, 2016. Download at ESSD
  • Birmili, W., Sun, J., Weinhold, K., Merkel, M., Rasch, F., Wiedensohler, A., Bastian, S., Löschau, G., Schladitz, A., Quass, U., Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., Kaminski, H., Cyrys, J., Pitz, M., Gu, J., Kusch, T., Flentje, H., Meinhardt, F., Schwerin, A., Bath, O., Ries, L., Gerwig, H., Wirtz, K., Weber, S.: Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) - Part III: Black Carbon mass and particle number concentrations 2009-2014, Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 75(11/12), 479-488, 2015. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2015
  • Nordmann, S., W. Birmili, K. Weinhold, K. Müller, G. Spindler, and A. Wiedensohler:, Measurements of the mass absorption cross section of atmospheric soot particles using Raman spectroscopy. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 12075–12085, doi:10.1002/2013JD020021, 2013.
  • The German Environment Agency (UBA): The German Environment Agency's air quality monitoring system: long-term measurements, process understanding, and effects of remote transport of pollutants (Das Luftmessnetz des Umweltbundesamtes: Langzeitmessungen, Prozessverständnis und Wirkungen ferntransportierter Luftverunreinigungen), Tech. Rep., edited by: Schleyer, R., Bieber, E., and Wallasch, M., Umweltbundesamt (UBA), Dessau-Rosslau, 112 pp., 2013. Download brochure (in German) at UBA
  • Asmi, A., Wiedensohler, A., Laj, P. et al.: Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008–2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5505‐5538, 2011. Download form ACP
  • Emeis, S., Forkel, R., Junkermann, W., Schäfer, K., Flentje, H. et al.: Measurement and simulation of the 16/17 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer dispersion in the northern Alpine region, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2689‐2701, doi:10.5194/acp-11-2689-2011, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Reddington, C. L., Carslaw, K. S., Spracklen, D. V., Frontoso, M. G., Collins, L. et al.: Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12007-12036, 2011. Download from ACP
  • Birmili, W., K. Weinhold, S. Nordmann, A. Wiedensohler, G. Spindler, K. Müller, H. Herrmann, T. Gnauk, M. Pitz, J. Cyrys, H. Flentje, C. Nickel, T.A.J. Kuhlbusch, G. Löschau, D. Haase, F. Meinhardt, A. Schwerin, L. Ries, and K. Wirtz. Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN): Part 1 - soot and particle number size distributions. Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 69(4): 137-145, 2009. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2009
  • Nordmann, S., W. Birmili, K. Weinhold, A. Wiedensohler, S. Mertes, K. Müller, T. Gnauk, H. Herrmann, M. Pitz, J. Cyrys, H. Flentje, L. Ries, K. Wirtz: Atmospheric aerosol measurements in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) - Part 2: Comparison of measurements techniques for graphitic, light-absorbing, and elemental carbon, and the non-volatile particle volume under field conditions. Gefahrst. Reinh. Luft, 69(11/12): 469-474, 2009. Download PDF courtesy of SPRINGER-VDI-VERLAG ©2009

Links

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